[62] Therefore, it is extremely important that counseling clients feel that they understand their counselor. However, sleeper effect could influence the strength of persuasion. 3 (or 4) of whom held a neutral opinion on some abstract topic, while the other 2 (or 1) held a different opinion. The elaboration likelihood model has been an influential and widely-cited theory in psychology, and its key contribution is the idea that people can be persuaded of things in one of two different ways depending on their level of elaboration for a particular topic. Research has examined the ability of entertainment-education (E-E) programs to influence behavior across a variety of health and social issues. When elaboration is lower, we’re more likely to be persuaded through the peripheral route. ", Assumption 7: "Attitude changes that result mostly from processing issue-relevant arguments (central route) will show greater temporal persistence, greater prediction of behavior and greater resistance to counter-persuasion than attitude changes that result mostly from peripheral cues." All these episodes are now in one course: Check it … Importantly, attitudes formed through the central route seem to be especially strong. She also found that text was more effective for informational messages, whereas audio was relatively more effective for testimonial messages. In 1983, Petty, Cacioppo and Schumann conducted a study to examine source effects in advertising. At higher levels of elaboration, people are more likely to think over an issue carefully, but, at lower levels, they may make decisions that are less carefully thought out. [2] The model aims to explain different ways of processing stimuli, why they are used, and their outcomes on attitude change. [31], The analysis of the different variables which mediate elaboration likelihood. [31] Trampe et al. They proposed situation, person, and product categories as new variables under the context of marketing. Thus, the distinction between central and peripheral routes is not the type of information being processed as those types can be applied to both routes, but rather how that information is processed and ultimately whether processing information in one way or the other will result in different attitudes. Another factor affecting elaboration is whether or not we have the time and ability to pay attention. [6] Considerable research was devoted to the study of attitudes and persuasion from the 1930s through the late 1970s. In addition, there were differences between the agents regarding their argument quality and peripheral cues. The heuristic-systematic model of information processing (HSM) is a widely recognized model by Shelly Chaiken that attempts to explain how people receive and process persuasive messages. conducted an experiment by presenting participants with Facebook posts from a fictitious company and analyzing their attitude change. Besides, nonpartisan articles would relatively generate more positive thoughts than partisan articles. By using ThoughtCo, you accept our, Overview of the Elaboration Likelihood Model. [14] Overall, as people’s motivation and ability to process the message and develop elaborations decreases, the peripheral cues present in the situation become more important in their processing of the message. For instance, Republicans will come out of more negative reasons why a Democrat senator should not be elected, while Democrats will generate more positive reasons to elect a Democrat senator. If these peripheral influences go completely unnoticed, the message recipient is likely to maintain their previous attitude towards the message. For this study, our team will build on the elaboration likelihood model (ELM). With this difference the ELM also explains that low-elaboration persuasion processes are qualitatively different as well. What factors affect elaboration? The elaboration likelihood model is a theory of persuasion that suggests that there are two different ways people can be persuaded of something, depending on how invested they are in a topic. Following along the central route, when a listener is highly motivated and interested, they tend to pay a lot of attention to the quality of the … "this feels right/good"), early parts of the message, their own mood, positive and negative cues of the persuasion context, etc. Some psychologists lump opportunity in with Ability as it primarily relates to the time available to the individual to make a decision. The more credible a counselor is perceived as, the more likely that counseling clients are to perceive the counselor’s advice as impactful. McGraw-Hill: New York, 205-207. This attitude change can be long-lasting, although durable change is less likely to occur than it is with the central route.[13][16]. elaboration likelihood model. The elaboration likelihood model (ELM) of persuasion is a dual process theory describing the change of attitudes. The work of Terry Chmielewski (University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire) found "moderate-to-strong support for the applicability of E-L-M to voting." Since social media become a popular marketing platform as well, some scholars also use the ELM to examine how purchase intentions, brand attitudes, and advertising attitudes could be affected by interactivity and source authority on social media platforms. What is Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM)? Lumping Versus Splitting in Attitude Change Theories", "The Evolution of Theory and Research in Social Psychology: From Single to Multiple Effect and Process Models of Persuasion", "The Elaboration Likelihood Model: Current Status and Controversies", "Decision making by elaboration likelihood model- analysis journal and model", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Elaboration_likelihood_model&oldid=1001488119, Articles lacking reliable references from November 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2019, All articles with vague or ambiguous time, Vague or ambiguous time from November 2020, Articles with dead external links from December 2016, Articles with permanently dead external links, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. [76] On top of Stiff's questioning, alternative models have been raised. However, counselor credibility is strongly mediated by the degree to which the client understands the information conveyed by the counselor. The extended elaboration likelihood model highlights the wide range of motivations that individuals may have for selecting different media forms and the implications of these motivations for how the media messages are processed. Distractions (for instance, noise in a library where a person is trying to read a journal article) can decrease a person's ability to process a message. Essentially, elaboration is a spectrum from low to high. Other factors can also affect our motivation to elaborate on an issue, such as how soon a potential issue will affect us (elaboration is higher for things that affect us more immediately), how much we already know about a topic (more preexisting knowledge is linked to more elaboration) and whether the issue relates to a core aspect of our identity (if it does, elaboration is higher). Compared to the central route’s effect, thoughts generated from the peripheral route will be relatively short-lasting. The ELM may provide a useful strategy for reaching adolescents at risk for smoking initiation, but particular attention should be focused on lower academic achievers to ensure that messages are appropriate for them. "Issue involvement and argument framing interact to influence attitude change, and that concern for information privacy further moderates the effects of these variables. Being at the high end of the elaboration continuum, people assess object-relevant information in relation to schemas that they already possess, and arrive at a reasoned attitude that is supported by information. [74], Many studies have been expanding and/or refining the model by examining and testing the variables, particularly in advertising research. What Is the Elaboration Likelihood Model in Psychology? Resistance to persuasion occurs when someone feels his/her freedom to perform a certain behavior is threatened. The elaboration likelihood model (ELM) of persuasion is a model of how attitudes are formed and changed that was developed by R. E. Petty and J. T. Cacioppo in the early 1980s (see also attitude change). ][60] Fortunately, an implementation of the ELM can help increase the positive perceptions of counseling amongst the undergraduate student population. The effect of repetition also depends on other factors such as content of argument, and previous knowledge and attitude. Ability includes the availability of cognitive resources (for instance, the absence of time pressures or distractions) and the relevant knowledge needed to examine arguments. The ELM was developed by Richard E. Petty and John Cacioppo in 1980. This indicates that peripheral route processes may have some influence on some voters; however, family and friends are likely to be more influential than those who do not have a personal connection to specific voters. This quantitative dimension is the peripheral route involves low-elaboration persuasion that is quantitatively different from the central route that involves high elaboration. [2] It is important to consider two types of factors that influence how and how much one will elaborate on a persuasive message. found out that in contradistinction to adults, ELM doesn't hold true for the young. The proposal of the new exam policy was either supported by strong or weak arguments. The central route is used when the message recipient has the motivation as well as the ability to think about the message and its topic. [18], Personal relevance can also affect an individual's degree of motivation. For staff who have higher levels of elaboration likelihood, managers should emphasize benefits and values of new systems; For staff who have lower levels of elaboration likelihood, managers should provide expertise and credible sources; 2) Commonly speaking, providing strong arguments is more effective than relying on credibility; 3) Since normative influences lead to more affective responses and informational influences lead to more cognition responses, managers should implement different strategies to provoke staff's reaction, while 4) cognition responses are more important than affective responses when accepting a new system. "[47], Another research directed by Boyce and Kuijer was focusing on media body ideal images triggers food intake among restrained eaters based on ELM. The extended elaboration likelihood model (E-ELM) was put forth precisely for this purpose—to consider how E-E programs may lead to persuasion by reducing resistance (Slater & Rouner, 2002). [52] By presenting experiment participants with Facebook posts and comments (civil or uncivil), they found that: civil comments will encourage more elaboration and therefore generate more willingness to engage in a discussion than uncivil comments; The more elaboration participants generate, the more they are willing to participant in the discussion..[52], The ELM has been studied with regard to its usefulness in politics and voting specifically. Liking, following, etc.). Their findings also indicate young people are representative of the less intellectually oriented population at large, who probably only have one route to process information. Metaphors require a deeper level of elaboration, thereby engaging the central route of processing. For example, in marketing research, advertising leads to a favorable brand attitude as long as the arguments are strong and tedium is not induced. Students categorized as likely to have higher involvement in a decision to initiate cigarette smoking, are reported relatively high ratings on a cognitive processing indicator for messages focused on factual arguments about negative consequences of smoking than for messages with fewer or no direct arguments. The elaboration likelihood model explains how people can be persuaded to change their attitudes. Another factor of ability is familiarity with the relevant subject. If he processes his friend’s message by taking the central route, he will carefully evaluate his friend’s argument and rationally think about the cost, reliability, fuel efficiency of this model. Being at the low end of the elaboration continuum, recipients do not examine the information as thoroughly. Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) is a theory that defines attitude change in people. can influence the amount and direction of processing, and self-validation postulates that those variables can affect how people use their thoughts as well. The extended elaboration likelihood model argues transportation reduces embedded message processing, but this study reasoned people with eudaimonic entertainment-use motivation would process narrative subtexts. [9] However, Petty and Cacioppo noticed a major problem facing attitude and persuasion researchers to the effect that there was minimal agreement regarding "if, when, and how the traditional source, message, recipient, and channel variables affected attitude change". According to the theory's developers Richard E. Petty and John T. Cacioppo, they intended to provide a general "framework for organizing, categorizing, and understanding the basic processes underlying the effectiveness of persuasive communications".[4]. Li conducted a research on persuasive tactics for managers who needed to persuade staff to adopt new information systems within firms by integrating the ELM, social influence theory (It studies how a person is influenced by others in a network to conform to a community, and there are two types of social influences: informational and normative influences), and affective and cognition responses (or emotional responses and rational responses).

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